This symposium will focus on South African Opera productions. Thereby the aim of the symposium is to represent the plurality of artistic concepts which deal in different ways with the multiple challenges of political and social transformation. How can opera in South Africa be involved in the process of societal transformation in a post-apartheid society? How do themes for the libretti change? How did language, the style of composition and orchestration transform? Which new locations for performances are found to involve new audiences? How did the aesthetics change?